Theresa May`s Brexit Agreement: A Comprehensive Summary

As the Brexit deadline looms, many are still struggling to understand what exactly UK Prime Minister Theresa May has negotiated with the European Union. The controversial agreement has been at the center of heated debates, protests, and resignations since its announcement in November 2018. In this article, we`ll take a comprehensive look at what the agreement entails and what it could mean for the future of the UK and the EU.

The Backstory

Before delving into the details of the agreement, it`s crucial to understand how we got here. In June 2016, the UK voted to leave the European Union. This sparked a series of negotiations between the UK and the EU, which eventually led to the draft agreement presented by Theresa May in November 2018. However, this agreement has faced significant opposition from members of May`s own Conservative Party, as well as opposition parties and the public.

The Key Points

The agreement is a complex document, running to over 500 pages. However, the following points are among the most critical:

1. The Irish Backstop: One of the most significant sticking points of the negotiations has been the Irish border. The agreement includes a “backstop” arrangement, which would keep the UK in a customs union with the EU until a more permanent solution is found to avoid a hard border between Northern Ireland (part of the UK) and the Republic of Ireland (an EU member state). However, this has been a contentious issue, with some arguing that the backstop could leave the UK permanently tied to the EU.

2. The Transition Period: If the deal is approved, the UK will enter a transition period that would last until the end of December 2020. During this time, the UK would continue to follow EU rules and regulations but would not have any say in EU decision-making.

3. The Divorce Bill: The UK would have to pay a financial settlement of around £39 billion to the EU as part of the agreement.

4. Citizens` Rights: The agreement guarantees the rights of EU citizens living in the UK and UK citizens living in the EU, even after the UK leaves the EU.

5. Future Trade Deals: The agreement sets out a framework for future trade deals between the UK and the EU. However, the details of any potential deals have not been agreed upon.

What`s Next?

The agreement has been met with significant opposition, both from within May`s own party and from opposition parties. In January 2019, the agreement was voted down in the UK Parliament by a historic margin. May has been attempting to renegotiate certain aspects of the deal, particularly with regards to the Irish backstop, but has so far been unsuccessful.

If a deal is not reached, the UK will leave the EU on March 29, 2019, without a deal. This could lead to significant disruption, particularly in terms of trade and travel. Alternatively, the UK could seek an extension to the deadline or even withdraw its decision to leave the EU altogether.


Theresa May`s Brexit agreement is a complex and divisive document, with implications that could be felt for years to come. While there are still significant hurdles to overcome before the agreement can be ratified, it`s essential to understand what exactly the agreement entails and what it could mean for the future of the UK and the EU. So, stay tuned for further updates on Brexit negotiations!